Study Guide for Hume and Kant

Hume

  1. What are the two kinds of perceptions that Hume discusses?
  2. How are they distinguished from one another?
  3. How are they related to one another?
  4. What is the methodological rule or principle for philosophical investigations that he bases on this view?
  5. What ideas does he apply this method to in the course of the Enquiry?
  6. What are the two different kinds of objects of our reasoning?
  7. What is the source of Hume’s skeptical doubts concerning the understanding?
  8. What is the basic difference between Descartes and Hume in relation to justification for belief?
  9. What is the impression from which the idea of power or necessary connection stems, according to Hume?
  10. How does Hume dissolve the apparent contradiction between necessity and liberty?
  11. Why can’t reports of miracles provide evidence that is sufficient for religious belief?
  12. Why can’t the order of nature provide evidence that is sufficient for religious belief?

Kant

  1. What does Kant focus on in his model of the mind (i.e., instead of Hume’s perceptions of the mind)?
  2. How are they distinguished from one another?
  3. How are they related to one another?
  4. What cognitive capacities does Kant focus on?
  5. In what ways is Kant’s overall view of the mind more like the view of Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz than it is like the view of Hume?
  6. Why can’t Hume’s attempt to derive the idea of causality from experience succeed, according to Kant?
  7. What is the difference between analytic judgments and synthetic judgments?
  8. What do synthetic judgments require for their justification that analytic judgments do not?
  9. How is this requirement met for empirical judgments?
  10. How is it met for synthetic a priori judgments?
  11. How does this view concerning synthetic a priori judgments in geometry and physics relate to Leibniz’s claims about the ontological status of bodies?
  12. What does reason contribute with respect to knowledge of nature?
  13. Why can’t the principles of substance and causality lead us to knowledge concerning the immortality of the soul and the existence of God?
  14. What interest of reason explains our concern with these traditional metaphysical ideas?

In what ways does Kant appear to agree with Hume? What are the most important differences in their views?

Does Hume provide a convincing account of the human mind and the sources and limits of human knowledge? Why or why not?

Does Kant provide a convincing account of the human mind and the sources and limits of human knowledge? Why or why not?

Compare and Contrast:

  • Descartes, Hume, and Kant on knowledge of God’s existence
  • Descartes, Hume, and Kant on the immortality of the soul
  • Descartes, Hume, and Kant on human cognition